Types of Stroke
There are two major types of stroke: ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.
An ischemic stroke occurs when an artery is blocked by a blood clot. This type of stroke may result from clogged arteries, called atherosclerosis. When fat, cholesterol and other substances collect on the artery walls, they form a sticky substance called plaque, which over time builds up and makes it hard for blood to flow properly to the brain.
A hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel in part of the brain becomes weak and bursts open (a brain aneurysm), causing blood to leak into the brain.
Call 911 if you or someone you know has symptoms of stroke. Brain function can be saved if you are having a stroke and get help quickly.
FACE: Ask the person to smile.
Does one side of the face
ARMS: Ask the person to raise
both arms. Does one arm
SPEECH: Ask the person to repeat a
phrase. Is their speech
slurred or strange?
TIME: If you observe any of these
signs, call 911 immediately.
Common symptoms of a stroke include:
- Blurred vision, brief blindness, or double vision
- Severe headache (typically seen with hemorrhagic stroke)
- Difficulty speaking
- Confusion or loss of memory
- Difficulty writing or reading
- Temporary memory problems
- Muscle weakness on one side of your body
- Vertigo (like the room is spinning) and dizziness
- Trouble speaking or understanding others who are speaking
- Strange sensations, such as burning or tingling
- Trouble with coordination, clumsiness
- Loss of consciousness
- New or changed headache
Symptoms of a stroke vary depending on the type of stroke and what part of the brain is damaged.
Stroke: What to Do
If you or someone you know is experiencing any of these symptoms, immediately contact 911.
Risk Factors for Stroke
In many cases, a stroke can be prevented. Certain diseases or conditions increase your risk of stroke. Some risk factors for stroke include those you can and cannot change.
These factors include:
- Atrial fibrillation (an abnormal heart rhythm)
- Diabetes. Patients with diabetes are at an increased risk for stroke compared to people without diabetes. The circulation problems associated with this disease may be responsible for poorer outcomes in people with diabetes following stroke.
- Family history of stroke
- Heart disease
- High blood pressure. High blood pressure is the number one risk for strokes.
- High cholesterol. High cholesterol can lead to hardening of your arteries (atherosclerosis), which can result in clogged arteries.
- Smoking. Smoking increases the risk of most types of strokes.
- Diet. People who eat more fruits, vegetables, fish and whole grains may have a lower risk of stroke that people who eat lots of refined grains, red meat and increased sodium levels.
- Illegal drug use, such as cocaine
- The use of some medications, such as birth control pills, can increase the chance of blood clots in women.
Become familiar with your stroke risk factors and learn the symptoms of a stroke. Acting FAST can help save your life or the life of a loved one.